Until recently the advice from the WHO, the CDC and other reputable health organisations was simple and clear and this website followed their advice.

Now these organisations, medical reports and experts are contradicting this advice.
239 researchers from 32 countries penned an open letter on to public health bodies, including the World Health Organization, arguing there's significant evidence the coronavirus can persist in the air and spread in airborne particles from person to person. The letter, published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases on Monday 6 July 2020, advocates for "the use of preventative measures to mitigate this route of airborne transmission" and was signed by 239 researchers from 32 countries.
"I'm a bit shocked this came up," says Isaac Bogoch, an infectious diseases researcher at the University of Toronto. "There is no new data, just a signed letter that makes headlines." The WHO are yet to comment. Source. See some of the known research below on this page.
How Coronavirus Spreads through the Air: What We Know So Far
The virus that causes COVID-19 can persist in aerosol form, some studies suggest. But the potential for transmission depends on many factors, including infectiousness, dose and ventilation
Aerosols Driving COVID-19 Spread. Aerosol experts say evidence doesn't add up for droplets being primary driver - 9 Oct 2020.

Some experts say that the air exhaled by a person with CO-19 is so diluted as to be harmless, while others disagree.

This page claims that face masks do not work mainly because the particle size is too fine (< 2.5 µm) to be blocked.
This paper was read 460,000 times, and the editor says that even though he looked at every response, he still found no reason to disagree that with" Still No Conclusive Evidence Justifying Mandatory Masks."
This convincing paper on the CDC site, dated 5 May 2020 says "In pooled analysis, we found no significant reduction in influenza transmission with the use of face masks" yet the CDC did not change its recommendations on their wearing. Wonder why?

The CDC now says that droplet transmission is unlikely, yet they still say to wash hands and the recommendation to sterilise areas still stands.
As at 5 October 2020, from the CDC "How COVID-19 Spreads".

The WHO now says to wear masks only when near anyone with COVID-19, the CDC since April 3, 2020, says "when in areas of high rates of transmission" while governments say whenever in public.

How do we know what is false news when so much comes from reputable sources and governments that take advice from "experts" or do they? No wonder that there is so much distrust in governments!

The question about Hydroxychloroquine as a cure for Covid-19 patients.

Despite multiple studies that show that Hydroxychloroquine reduces mortality by up to 50% when administered in low doses, 200-400 mg daily, preferably early, there are many medical "experts" particularly those advising politicians, who refuse to consider the evidence. Many base their opinion on the Recovery trial where patients were given 2400 mg of HCQ, which although not lethal is 6 to 10x more than multiple successful trials.
Many believe that the fact that President Trump apparently promoted the drug was the reason for its rejection by many. Another reason is that it was not possible to find any positive reports through a search on Google. Try searching on Google using "hydroxychloroquine or HCQ Covid studies" to see that it only shows negative studies, mostly relatively old. The only positive study listed out of the top 50 results referred to a critical article on the study, apparently not an accident. Google could be liable for massive damages and misrepresentation in not stating on their search page that the search has been edited.
Dr. Didier Raoult prematurely reported success using hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin, but in his eagerness to share his results did not observe accepted protocols for proof, and has been accused of allowing his pride and arrogance to distort his early results, possibly true or as an attempt to discredit him and his results.

Here is a link to about 70 to updated studies that showed positive results using HCQ, as well as about 23 that showed negative results, with others that were inconclusive.

January 2021 - Well, well, well, will you look at that. The American Journal of Medicine just published an article about "early outpatient treatment of SARS-CoV-2" which INCLUDES hydroxychloroquine. Yes, you read that correctly. The absolute state of the medical field. https://www.amjmed.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0002-9343%2820%2930673-2

A highly recommended peer-reviewed study by Henry Ford Health Systems published 2 July 2020 in the International Journal of Infectious Diseases found that 13% of hospitalized patients treated with hydroxychloroquine alone died of COVID-19, compared to 26.4% who died who were NOT treated with the drug. Washington Times link also here. Hydroxychloroquine is effective, 'helped save lives.
Also not found using any Google search is this YouTube video by Dr John Campbell who has 742,000 subscribers.
Dr John Campbell explains that the failed Hydroxychloroquine studies gave unexplained high dosages of up to 10 x the guidelines of 200 to 400 mg based on weight. He discusses a Belgium study "Low-dose Hydroxychloroquine Therapy and Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: A Nationwide Observational Study of 8075 Participants (International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 24 August)".
Hydroxychloroquine: Dangerous drug or innocent victim? The conclusion - Hydroxychloroquine has been safely used in millions of patients with approximately 20 reported deaths worldwide attributed to its use over the past 55+ years. In the setting of a short course of treatment with hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19, it is highly unlikely that fatal cardiac cases are from hydroxychloroquine use. Many doctors have remarked in the comments of these negative reports that giving massive overdoses as done is several studies could have very adverse effects.

Hydroxychloroquine is not a panacea for severe cases of Covid-19. Apparently given early, it helps reduce mortality by about half, compared to those not given the drug. Indian Experts Explain: The case for using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to treat Covid-19.

29 July 2020. When President Trump tweeted a link to a group called Medicine and Censors which advocated the use of Hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19, where it received 17 million hits, it was removed by Facebook almost immediately. I do not know if their argument has merit, but it sounded plausible, even though the doctors were accused of being Tea Party supporters. Part of the video can be seen here at https://www.bitchute.com/video/K77tHRJB9bCq/.

Here was the LINK to a challenging presentation which has been removed. Here you can see a small portion of the presentation on Dr Toledo's website together with other Hydroxychloroquine studies. "Frontline Physicians Aim to Dispel 'Massive' COVID-19 'Disinformation Campaign' on Capitol Hill".
There are several references dating back to 2005 hypothesising that chloroquine could be a cure for SARS coronavirus.

The FDA-approved drug Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.

Dr Thomas Borody and Ivermectin treatment is a 'real killer of coronavirus'
7 August 2020. Professor Borody is most famous for his ground-breaking work developing the triple therapy cure for peptic ulcers in 1987, which has saved hundreds of thousands of lives, and the Australian health system more than $10 billion in medical care and operations.
Professor Borody founded the Centre for Digestive Diseases (CDD) in 1984 after a distinguished career with leading hospitals including St Vincent's in Sydney and the Mayo Clinic in the USA. Link.

We report here that Ivermectin, an FDA-approved anti-parasitic previously shown to have broad-spectrum anti-viral activity in vitro, is an inhibitor of the causative virus (SARS-CoV-2), with a single addition to Vero-hSLAM cells 2 h post infection with SARS-CoV-2 able to effect ~5000-fold reduction in viral RNA at 48 h. Ivermectin therefore warrants further investigation for possible benefits in humans. Source.

Ivermectin is effective for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 33 studies - Link.
Ivermectin has saved thousands of lives of Covid-19 sufferers worldwide. As an example of intractable twentieth-century medical mindset Ivermectin is banned in South Africa because the medical profession will not accept new ideas without double-blind peer-reviewed evidence, which takes time and will cost hundreds of thousands of lives. To quote "Sahpra said there was no clinical evidence available for the use of Ivermectin in the management of Covid-19 infections." They will not allow its use or accept its effectiveness without evidence, and reports of its success are not evidence.

Last month Dr. Kory and his team testified before the U.S. Senate Homeland Security Committee in favor of authorizing Ivermectin, a Nobel Prize-winning anti-parasitic agent, for early treatment of the novel coronavirus. In his impassioned presentation, Dr. Kory explained that Ivermectin "basically obliterates transmission of this virus," with "miraculous effectiveness." Ivermectin has been the subject of dozens of studies and anecdotal success stories since it was found to reduce COVID-19 in a laboratory last June. "I've been treating COVID pretty much every single day since the onset," Kory said at the December hearing. "When I say 'miracle' I do not use that term lightly. Mountains of data that has emerged in the last three months." Such data emanates from places like India, the second most populated nation in the world, which embraced the treatment protocol advanced by FLCCC, and has watched its case and fatalities rate drop in "steep decline." Though India has four times the population of the U.S., it has less than half of the coronavirus related deaths. Other examples come from Bangladesh, Peru, Argentina, Brazil and several other South American countries, all of which have demonstrated the effectiveness of Ivermectin. - LINK.

There are other drugs under investigation.Quercetin: New Hype for COVID-19?

This is the most convincing graph that shows the effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine that has been ignored.

    With the publication of a the fraudulent Lancet study on 22 May 2020, most countries suspended the Hydroxychloroquine trials or to simply ban its dispensing.

    The Lancet study which claimed to demonstrate the toxicity and ineffectiveness of hydroxychloroquine was withdrawn on the 4th of June, so Swiss patients remained deprived of this treatment May 27th till the 11th of June. France also banned the drug during this time. These 15 days of prohibition had an impact on patient survival, proven by the increase in deaths among newly resolved cases, based on daily data from Johns Hopkins University.

    During the weeks preceding the ban, the nrCFR index fluctuated between 3% and 5%. Some 13 days after the start of the prohibition, the nrCFR index increases considerably to be between 10 and 15% for 2 weeks. Some 12 days after the end of the prohibition, the lethality falls back to a lower level.

    Note that during the prohibition period of hydroxychloroquine in Switzerland and France, the nrCFR index was almost identical in both countries with temporary increases in mortality.

Nursing and Care Homes and the Aged

The advice below was based on advice earlier in the year, but may not be the best with recent information.

Unexpected consequence of preventing visits to care homes is the loneliness and depression of the residents from no family visits, less family supervision,reduced activities, all of which can increase mortality. The question of isolation is not an easy answer.

For the elderly who may not be able to control their hands, it may be advisable to cover their face with a full face shield, a veil or something similar, but first consider the emotional stress.
Since the virus is hazardous to the infirm and elderly, they must be particularly protected from any contact with their faces, both from their own hands and those of their carers, particularly since many of their carers will be exposed when travelling to work or even at work.
A veil or similar covering over the whole face will help, but not if you touch the face with possibly contaminated hands when fitting it or removing it.
A less intrusive option to stop the elderly touching their faces, particularly the eyes may be to wear glasses or workman's protective goggles, or have them wear gloves that should inhibit face touching, if surfaces are a significant cause of infection.

Carers should follow hospital sanitary rules, by washing or sterilising their hands between each person.

In Canada 82 percent of the country's coronavirus deaths were reported tied to long-term-care homes, while in the US almost 40%and 50% in Europe came from Care Homes.

The elderly in nursing homes are more likely to have terminal illnesses or other underlying chronic conditions that make it harder for their bodies to recover. It is likely that the particularly frail individuals who live in nursing homes (or at home) died because of the overwhelming nature of the multi-system organ damage that COVID-19 inflicts. In the UK, there are just over 410,000 people living in nursing homes, of whom approximately 25% die every year. For many in this group, COVID-19 may have precipitated the end of life by a few months to a year. SOURCE.

You definitely do not send your sick COVID-19 patients from overflowing hospitals to nursing homes to mass infect the residents as was done in Italy, by Governor Cuomo in New York and in some other US states. The 'silent massacre' in Italy's Milan and Lombardy nursing homes for the elderly.
AP count: Over 4,500 virus patients sent to NY nursing homes.
'Playing Russian Roulette': Nursing Homes Told to Take the Infected - NY Times 24 April 2020

About Vitamin D, Zinc and kids.

There is growing non scientific literature that Vitamin D and Zinc inhibit the CO-19 virus. Taking them should do no harm except to your pocket, and in a sea of bewilderment they could be effective.

This report claims massive reductions with Vitamin D for darker skins.
Dr. Ryan Cole explains every cell in our body has a vitamin D receptor in the nucleus. Approx 2,000 genes in our body (5% of our genome) are controlled by Vitamin D. If one has a D level of 50 mg/ml (range 20-100) one cannot develop a "cytokine storm" which is the main cause of Covid death. 80% of hospital patients and 96% in ICU are Vitamin D deficient. Those countries like the Scandinavians that add Vitamin D through food additives show much better health results. 80% of USA citizens are also magnesium deficient, and you need magnesium for Vitamin D to circulate Vit D into your immune system. D is a fat soluble vitamin, and the heavier you are the more goes into your fat and the less into your immune system.

Vitamin D helps the body fight coronavirus, major Israeli study of 7807 coronavirus patients claims.

Dr John Campbell discusses the importance and benefits of Vitamin D in lessening the effects on Covid-19.

Results are coming in from various settings and the main message seems to be that vitamin D deficiency may or may not help to prevent you catching the virus, but it does affect whether you get very ill from it.

Sunlight and COVID-19 Virus

"Sunlight destroys the COVID-19 virus quickly," reads the briefing.

Preliminary results from government lab experiments show that the coronavirus does not survive long in high temperatures and high humidity, and is quickly destroyed by sunlight, providing evidence from controlled tests of what scientists believed - but had not been proven - to be true. Link here

Sun, fresh air & virus in 1920

In 1918 putting infected patients out in the sun helped because it inactivated the influenza virus.

It also kills bacteria that cause lung and other infections in hospitals.
During the First World War, military surgeons routinely used sunlight to heal infected wounds.
They just knew it was a disinfectant. What they didn't know was how it worked was that the placing patients outside in the sun was they could synthesise vitamin D in their skin if sunlight was strong enough.

Click here for a fascinating article
that showed how simple changes to treatment reduced the Spanish influenza death rate from 40% to 13%.

We know the benefits of sunshine and fresh air, so are we doing our children a disservice by keeping them indoors? About Vitamin D and kids.
It really makes you wonder where some politicians were getting their advice when they closed beaches and parks to the public during the lockdowns!

What is the best dose of zinc for Covid-19 prevention.

Immunity, Antibodies, Dosage, Distance and Dispersion

Distance, Dose, Dispersion: An experts' guide on Covid-19 risks

This link will take you to probably the best written. clearest guide in the Daily Maverick, a South African publication.

Immunity and Antibodies
It is most unlikely that you will get COVID-19 again. This year at least! There is a lot we do not know about the new coronavirus.

Although there have been reports of getting the virus again, these cases could have been that the virus never left the patient, and the two proven cases out of 30 million could have another explanation.

Some researches believe that exposure to other viruses may boost your immune system to better resist the new coronavirus, if only for a few weeks. Cross-reactivity could explain why exposure to common bugs in the dirt and in our homes renders us less susceptible to dangerous infectious agents. Source.
The immune response to the virus is stronger than everyone thought.Coronavirus: Why everyone was wrong

Immunity is different proteins and cells that results in the body fending off a pathogen before it can gain a toehold. The scheme varies from pathogen to pathogen.
While most acute infections result in the development of protective immunity, available data for human coronaviruses suggest the possibility that substantive adaptive immune responses can fail to occur and robust protective immunity can fail to develop.

Immunity occurs when our immune system has developed antibodies against a germ, either naturally or as a result of a vaccine, and is fully prepared should exposure recur. The immune system response is so robust that the invading germ is eradicated before symptomatic disease can develop. NY Times.

The human immune system can apparently handle or counteract a small amount of the COVID-19 virus.
How much is a small amount we do not know.

A big question is whether if you are exposed to progressively larger amounts of the virus over a given time, will your ability to handle larger amounts increase?

This article suggests how to support your immune system.

Boost your immunity with healthy food, control stress, quality sleep, exercise preferably outdoors, No smoking, limit alcohol and keep chronic conditions under control.

Trump health official meets with doctors pushing herd immunity.
In the meeting, the three doctors from "The Greater Barrington Declaration LINK to the petition and video" well worth watching and signing advanced their ideas. They told Azar that allowing the virus to spread uncontrolled among young, healthy people while protecting older adults and those at higher risk for serious illness would build up enough population immunity to stop it from spreading widely while avoiding lockdowns and other mitigation measures that have had a damaging impact on the economy.
The idea of allowing the virus to spread uncontrollably is gaining traction in the White House, where Atlas is advising President Trump, who is battling his own case of COVID-19.

As an aside that is exactly what this website has been proposing for 6 months, although not certain of the effectiveness of masks in preventing spread until we know more about spreading the virus. Their declaration is probably the most sensible medical advice available.
However although you might be able to protect most of the vulnerable, there will still be mortalities and intensive care hospital stays for many. The virus is now almost everywhere.

No one knows for sure how much virus it takes for someone to become infected, but recent studies offer some clues. In one small study published recently in the journal Nature, researchers were unable to culture live coronavirus if a patient's throat swab or milliliter of sputum contained less than one million copies of viral RNA. Wall Street Journal.

Overall, "The risk of a given infected person transmitting to people is pretty low," said Scott Dowell, a deputy director overseeing the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Covid-19 response. "For every superspreading event you have a lot of times when nobody gets infected."
He and his colleagues found samples from contagious patients with virus levels up to 1,000 times that, which could help explain why the virus is so infectious in the right conditions: It may take much lower levels of virus than what's found in a sick patient to infect someone else.

Some scientists say while aerosol transmission does occur, it doesn't explain most infections. In addition, the virus doesn't appear to spread widely through the air.
"If this were transmitted mainly like measles or tuberculosis, where infectious virus lingered in the airspace for a long time, or spread across large airspaces or through air-handling systems, I think you would be seeing a lot more people infected," said the CDC's Dr. Brooks.

The attack rate for Covid-19 in households ranges between 4.6% and 19.3%, according to several studies. It was higher for spouses, at 27.8%, than for other household members, at 17.3%, in one study in China.

Thoughts about masks September 2020

The effectiveness of masks has advocates and opponents; each will find good reasons and papers to prove their opinion.
Those in favour of masks will say that it is better to minimise any exposure to the virus and show papers of their effectiveness.
Those opposing masks can show proof of their ineffectiveness, and anyway, exposure to SARS-CoV-2 will allow the body to develop beneficial resistance to infection.
With the introduction of seat belts despite opposition, the effect on lives saved was apparent.

When we look at statistics, we see that mask introduction or removal has no discernible impact on mortality rate trends, an indication of their ineffectiveness, again counter to our intuitive belief.

Masks are effective protection against bacteria which are giants when compared to viruses, much larger than the .060 to .140 micron of the SARS-CoV-2. An incorrectly fitted mask will be ½ as effective, while surgical and cloth masks may only filter 75% of the virus. Additionally, the mask does not destroy the virus, only trap it on the mask until it deteriorates.

Why, where, when did mask-wearing become compulsory?
When the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) discovered SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding, on April 3, 2020, it recommended that the public wear cloth face coverings in areas with high rates of community transmission. This guidance was without any proven new information about the effectiveness of masks in preventing infection spread. It led governments to introduce compulsory facial masking no matter the rates of community transmission. It appears that politicians and medical experts have been incapable of determining what high or low areas are, so they have forced everyone to wear a mask everywhere.

Prevent Infection through Keeping COVID-19 from your Face

Your face is the gateway to the Coronavirus infection.
             Don't let your hands open the gate!!

  1. You touch your face 16 times an hour.
  2. It cannot be emphasised enough that your greatest danger other than being too close to anyone is TOUCHING near your mouth, eyes or nose with virus-contaminated hands is a likely cause of self infection.
  3. The COVID-19 virus has a relatively long life on hard surfaces, so you anything you touch outside your home can be contaminated!
  4. To stop getting the virus, wear a full face shield or similar barrier unless you can be certain that your hands won't touch your face, consciously or not.
  5. The best solution would appear to be a full face shield you can remove without touching your face, hair and head.
  6. A veil or similar covering the whole face will help, but disinfect your hands before removing to prevent self-contamination.
  7. To stop spreading the virus to others, and to obey the law, wear a surgical or cloth mask. A clean surgical or cloth mask will help inhibit ingesting the virus and touching your mouth and nose, but not prevent touching your eyes & face, and must be removed very carefully to avoid self contamination.
  8. Note how many of the ladies In the picture are touching their faces! Stop the face touching, stop the virus.
  9. For suggestions on how to stop touching your face CLICK here and HERE and HERE and HERE and this VIDEO.
  10. For discussion on LOCKDOWN options and government responses see https://endco19.com/index.html

These are three of the exact instructions given by the WHO and echoed by every health organisation but some are questioning!

  1. Wash your hands frequently. Why? Washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub kills viruses that may be on your hands.
  2. Maintain social distancing. Why? When someone coughs, sneezes (or talks) they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which may contain the virus. If you are too close, you can breathe in the droplets, including the CO-19 virus if the person coughing has the disease. If you are social distancing infection this way is unlikely.
  3. Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth. Why? Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up viruses. Once contaminated, hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose or mouth. From there, the virus can enter your body and can make you sick.

Advice has changed - again!!! Important - 22 May 2020

It now appears that Surfaces Are 'Not the Main Way' Coronavirus Spreads, C.D.C. Says If you're worried about wiping down grocery bags or disinfecting mailed packages, this C.D.C. guidance might bring some relief. It's not new information; the agency has been saying this for months.

The Coronavirus Is Airborne Indoors. Why Are We Still Scrubbing Surfaces? Scientists who initially warned about contaminated surfaces now say that the virus spreads primarily through inhaled droplets, and that there is little to no evidence that deep cleaning mitigates the threat indoors.

Note how few experts are now concerned about hand sterilising, yet stores are still spraying all shoppers. Is it a waste?  

The so-called super-spreaders are maybe anyone infected who spits a lot when talking.

When, Whether and Why Wear a Mask or Shield?

The Recommendations on Wearing Masks Changed

This is taken from an interview with Dr Fauci in March 2020.
Fauci: The masks are important for someone who's infected to prevent them from infecting someone else. Right now in the United States, people should not be walking around with masks..
LaPook: You're sure of it? Because people are listening really closely to this.
Fauci: There's no reason to be walking around with a mask. When you're in the middle of an outbreak, wearing a mask might make people feel a little bit better, and it might even block a droplet, but it's not providing the perfect protection that people think that it is. And, often, there are unintended consequences - people keep fiddling with the mask, and they keep touching their face..
LaPook: And can you get some schmutz, sort of staying inside there?
Fauci: Of course, of course. But, when you think masks, you should think of health care providers needing them and people who are ill. The people who, when you look at the films of foreign countries, and you see 85% of the people wearing masks - that's fine, that's fine. I'm not against it. If you want to do it, that's fine.
LaPook: But it can lead to a shortage of masks?
Fauci: Exactly' that's the point. It could lead to a shortage of masks for the people who really need it.

Dr Fauci has since claimed that he was emphasising physical distancing rather than not recommending masks because they are unsafe or to preserve supplies.

On 3 April 2020 Dr Fauci said "more accumulation of data indicate that people who are without symptoms at all can transmit the virus. . . I think what people don't fully appreciate is that putting a mask on yourself is more to prevent you from infecting someone else.."

Dr. Anthony Fauci is quoted saying to Dr Ashton on 30 July 2020: "If you have goggles or an eye shield, you should use it. It's not universally recommended, but if you really want to be complete, you should probably use it if you can."

In March 2020 the WHO and the CDC did not recommend that the public wear masks because they believed that touching the face to adjust the mask would transfer germs to your face.

Additionally the advice was that without evidence of airborne transmission, it did not recommend the public wear masks to prevent catching COVID-19, because the WHO and most research says that you cannot normally catch the virus floating around in the air around you.

A possible explanation for the policy change might be that if the WHO the CDC and governments had realised how effective masks and shields are at stopping the spread of the virus, and had insisted on masks, or even better, shields, much earlier instead of lockdowns, they may have had far fewer deaths.

Read the article on masks and gloves by Sehaam Khan and Saurabh Sinha on 6 April 2020 in the Daily Maverick.

Because people may be passing the virus on to others even when they feel fine, asking only unwell people to stay home is unlikely to be enough. This is why many experts, going against recommendations by the C.D.C. and the World Health Organization, are now urging everyone to wear masks - to prevent those who are unaware they have the virus from spreading it. NY Times 20/4/2020.

The wrong advice on masks would make the greatest mistake in history even greater!

The current advice from the CDC is to wear a type of cloth mask to prevent contamination escaping to protect others if there is any chance you have contracted COVID-19, which may be compulsory or recommended worldwide to prevent the spreading of COVID-19.

The CDC has changed its guidance once again, acknowledging new information on its website was confusing about the low risk of contracting COVID-19 from contaminated surfaces, now saying coronavirus can "possibly" be spread on surfaces and objects. However, the virus is mainly transmitted between people. Washington Times 26 May 2020.

If transmission is just only a possibility from surfaces and objects why so much effort in sterilising them, even closing schools for a week if a student is diagnosed with COVID-19?

This is not the first time the USA's' premier public health agency has had to reverse course on information related to the coronavirus pandemic, including the agency's evolving guidance on whether a face mask should or should not be worn in public.

Public Health England (PHE) and the World Health Organisation has also not recommended people wear gloves or face masks to protect themselves.

The WHO since 6 April has clearly said and still says in text, video and posters: Link

'There is currently no evidence that wearing a mask (whether medical or other types) by healthy persons in the wider community setting, including universal community masking, can prevent them from infection with respiratory viruses, including COVID-19.
'If you are healthy, you only need to wear a mask if you are taking care of a person with COVID-19.'

In April, the British Medical Journal also wrote that masks "could have a substantial impact on transmission, with a relatively small impact on social and economic life". "It seems like much of Europe is on the same page," says Euronews' Political Editor Darren McCaffrey.
"The political positioning in Europe is moving towards making covering your face and mouth mandatory - particularly on public transport and in crowded places." Source Euro News.
It would therefore appear that wearing masks is a political rather than medical decision, although there is a new Lancet report indicating that the wearing of masks when in close contact reduces transmission.

'The use of masks made of other materials (e.g., cotton fabric), also known as nonmedical masks, in the community setting has not been well evaluated.

Health workers who may be in very close contact with patients need masks, preferably the N95; also shields since their risk of having a patient spray into their face is high.

Doctors wear surgical masks when operating to prevent infecting the patient, not to protect themselves.

Clarity is one of many things in short supply about COVID-19.
Experts don't know and politicians have no idea.

Why and When a Shield could be Better

Shield or Visor + and -
  1. For protection against catching the virus, wear a shield that covers your face and prevents the touching of your face, as well as preventing being infected.
  2. A reasonable suggestion is to wear both a shield and a mask for really effective protection, especially since wearing a shield stops the wearer fiddling with the mask and contaminating their hands.
  3. A shield can be reused indefinitely, taken off and wiped or sprayed with bleach or a disinfectant and then replaced and sterilised by washing.
  4. A shield can be removed without touching the face and will stop you touching your face while wearing.
  5. The WHO is not recommending widespread use of shields or visors, but nor have they been recommending masks.
  6. A shield will prevent your saliva and breath being distributed directly into the air, and block it travelling any distance.
  7. A shield does not inhibit speech and communication, and does not hide the face.
  8. It is easier to wear glasses increasing your alert level with a shield as they do not mist up as much as a with a mask.
  9. Breathing is easier wearing a shield, and if still restricted can be eased by making a few holes in the side of the shield, with even less CO2 build-up.

The thinking of one expert
Linda Bauld, Chair of Public Health, The Usher Institute - University of Edinburgh has implied on Cape Talk radio on 21 May 2020 when comparing shields to masks that N95 masks and shields "are overkill>"
Listen to her strange comment that when trying to keep safe from contamination that a simple shield or visor is overkill.
She also had found it interesting that wearers seem to fiddle more with masks than shields.
Dr Bauld states correctly that the WHO not recommending visors, but nor do they recommend wearing masks, see section above.
Later in the conversation she explains that face touching is a behavioural science problem. Apparently it is better to learn not to touch your face than to use a simple shield for prevention.
She was also concerned from a public health perspective at the extra costs of shields, ignoring that they are re-usable.

I would seriously doubt any advice that Prof Bauld proffers, and now understand how the medical experts have made such a stuff up of this whole contagion.

See under Masks &/or Shields how to make a shield for almost no cost.
Mask + and -

  1. The WHO is not recommending widespread use of masks, but nor have they been recommending visors.

  2. Wearing a mask might deter you catching the virus through your mouth and nose, but offers no protection should you rub your eyes or adjust or touch the mask and your face with contaminated hands.

  3. If the CO-19 virus remains airborne then a mask will partially prevent the inhaling of these tiny droplets, or aerosols.

    The WHO reported "In an analysis of 75,465 COVID-19 cases in China, there was no airborne transmission reported", but this was before much was known about the virus, and this advice is being reviewed.
    There are, however, several research papers that say that viruses can remain in the air for some time, but usually in under special conditions like medical procedures.
    See the discussion below on Airborne Transmission.

  4. A mask will collect virus on the outside and must be removed very carefully so as to not contaminate the face.

  5. A mask inhibits speech and communication, hides part of the face, and is intimidating to others.

  6. Many mask wearers find it claustrophobic, difficult to breath, damp and irritating so they keep on moving them away from their mouth with extra hand contamination and allowing virus spread.

So why are shields not recommended by the CDC and WHO?

Logical Conclusion

Mode of transmission: CDC Recommendations 18 May 2020.
"Current data suggest person-to-person transmission most commonly happens during close exposure to a person infected with the virus that causes COVID-19, primarily via respiratory droplets produced when the infected person speaks, coughs, or sneezes.
"Droplets can land in the mouths, noses, or eyes of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs of those within close proximity.
"Transmission also might occur through contact with contaminated surfaces followed by self-delivery to the eyes, nose, or mouth.
"The contribution of small respirable particles, sometimes called aerosols or droplet nuclei, to close proximity transmission is currently uncertain. However, airborne transmission from person-to-person over long distances is unlikely."

The logical conclusion is that the only way the virus can enter your body is through your eyes, nose and mouth, (except through an open cut) and there are only three ways the infection can get to your eyes, nose mouth.

However to confuse matters further "The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has changed its coronavirus guidance once again, acknowledging information posted on its website last week about the risk of contracting COVID-19 from contaminated surfaces was confusing. The CDC now says the coronavirus can "possibly" be spread on surfaces and objects, though the virus is mainly transmitted between people. This is not the first time the nation's premier public health agency has had to reverse course on information related to the coronavirus, including the agency's evolving guidance on whether a mask should be worn in public."

One is being too close to an infected person who coughs, sneezes or spits close enough to land on your face.

Protect yourself by social distancing of 1 to 2 meters depending on to whom you listen and a shield.

Two is yourself touching something that an infected person or someone else has touched, coughed, sneezed or splattered or spat on, and then touching your face with hands that carry infection before washing or sterilising your hands.

Three is your face inadvertently touching something with the virus or being touched by infected hands.
Wearing a shield that protects from human spray and allows nothing contaminated to touch your face should be the best protection.

Abundance of caution procedures

"So far, evidence suggests that it's harder to catch the virus from a soft surface (such as fabric) than it is from frequently touched hard surfaces like elevator buttons or door handles," wrote Lisa Maragakis, MD, senior director of infection prevention at the Johns Hopkins Health System. Source.

Although some emergency workers throw everything, they were wearing into the wash as they get home, and if the soap doesn't get the virus, the hot water above 133F or 56C will.
Not a bad idea to be super careful, but ensure that you wash your hands before removing masks or shields.
Don't forget that buttons are hard surfaces.
Your shoes can pick up the virus, so either leave them outside or wipe them with sanitiser.

The CDC recommends the general public wearing gloves only when cleaning or caring for someone who is sick.
The WHO cautions that washing your hands offers more protection against catching the coronavirus than wearing rubber gloves. It explains that COVID-19 can still be picked up on gloves and that this can be transferred to one's face. Gloves may give a "false sense of security", and washing hands is a far better precautionary measure.
Wearing gloves is of doubtful protection since the virus does not penetrate the skin, unless maybe through an open wound. For gloves to be effective, they must be removed after touching any possibly contaminated object. Much easier to wash your hands.
The main advantage or disadvantage of gloves is that some are less likely to touch your face while others are more likely when wearing them.
If you let the gloves get dirty you could be increasing the chances of spreading contamination.
Public Health England (PHE) and the World Health Organisation has also not recommended people wear gloves or face masks to protect themselves.
Lenses and your Eyes.
The American Academy of Ophthalmology suggests that you consider "switching to glasses for a while.
"Wearing glasses may add a layer of protection.
"There's no evidence that wearing contact lenses increases your risk of coronavirus infection. But contact lens wearers touch their eyes more than the average person."
Safety glasses, which protect the exposed sides and the area around your eyes may offer better protection, health care experts say.

Keeping Covid-19 at bay when buying and consuming food. "We have no evidence that this virus is transmitted via food, or indeed food packaging," said Professor Lucia Anelich. So there's no empirical proof that anyone has contracted the virus from packaging. It's not impossible, but the chances are slim, Anelich indicates.
When asked about the effectiveness of wearing gloves during food preparation, she said years of research show that gloves offer a "false sense of security". "When people wear gloves, they tend to forget that the glove is an extension of their hand and so they will touch surfaces with the glove and then touch their faces or forget to wash their hands." She urged against wearing gloves while shopping.
"I do not disinfect (food) and I do not wash them with soap and water - that is a definite no no," said Anelich, who explained that soap is toxic to humans and should not be ingested.
In addition, what is emerging is that 90% of transmission occurs person-to-person, whether asymptomatic, symptomatic or pre-symptomatic, with only 10% from surfaces. What we also know is that frequently touched surfaces pose a greater risk than other less-touched surfaces. The chances that a specific package is frequently touched by an infected person are therefore highly remote.

More about COVID-19 Airborne Transmission and Masks

This document of 29 March 2020 from the WHO discusses the various forms of infection transmission, concluding that there is unlikely to be a COVID-19 airborne transmission, but droplet transmission is common within close contact (within 1 m). Click here

This article dated 16 March 2020 concludes that airborne transmission may be possible, but not likely, and repeats the WHO instruction that COVID-19 does not require the wearing of masks.

This CDC Recommendation updated May 18, 2020 says "The contribution of small respirable particles, sometimes called aerosols or droplet nuclei, to close proximity transmission is currently uncertain. However, airborne transmission from person-to-person over long distances is unlikely."

Transmitting the Virus
If tiny drops generated from breathing and probably coughing containing coronavirus remain suspended for some time, then a face mask is both of use as protection against inhaling the virus and preventing spreading.
If the drops do not remain suspended for much time, a mask, especially a surgical mask will help stop a person with CO-19 from spreading, but is no protection to becoming infected, and could increase the chance of infection if the wearer adjusts the mask with contaminated fingers. Only a shield stops the wearer touching contaminated surfaces and then touching their face.

Medical personal in close contact with CO-19 patients must wear at least the N95 mask, plus a medically approved face shield.

If you're not sick but are around people who have the flu, wearing a surgical mask can help protect you from getting infected as long as it's tight-fitting. If there are gaps around the sides, then it's not helping much.
The only certain conclusion is that there is no certain conclusion yet. The WHO is slow on making any new recommendations.
Generation and Behavior of Airborne Particles (Aerosols) here.

Link to another report "Natural Ventilation for Infection Control in Health-Care Settings"

How long can virus live on surfaces?

Click her for WHO report "Is coronavirus spreading by talking and breathing?"

The WHO says "in an analysis of 75,465 COVID-19 cases in China, airborne transmission was not reported". However, this was before much was known about CO-19.
This is taken directly from a WHO report COVID-19 spreads through droplet transmission - respiratory droplets that are relatively heavy, do not travel far and fall quickly to the ground and other surfaces.
Extensive contamination of the environment can occur.
Although airborne spread seems to be unlikely in normal circumstances, further evidence is needed before it is considered an insignificant mode of transmission.

Droplets Size Evaporation Time The Wells evaporation-falling curve of droplets

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC is "additionally advising the use of simple cloth face coverings to slow the spread of the virus and help people who may have the virus and do not know it from transmitting it to others. Cloth face coverings fashioned from household items or made at home from common materials at low cost can be used as an additional, voluntary public health measure." The CDC recommends wearing face masks in public settings to prevent spreading the disease, even though coronavirus airborne transmission is "unlikely."
A CDC report that virus droplet nuclei aerosols can stay suspended in the air during medical procedures is probably the basis for discussion on airborne transmission as against droplet transmission.

However the WHO criticised this report since the droplets were detected near where medical procedures had taken place or where droplets were generated by a nebuliser which does not reflect normal human cough conditions.
The "WHO continues to recommend droplet and contact precautions", (but not nuclei aerosol precautions.)
Routes of transmission COVID-19 is transmitted via droplets and fomites during close unprotected contact between an infector and infectee.

Airborne spread has not been reported for COVID-19, and it is not believed to be a major driver of transmission based on available evidence; however, it can be envisaged if certain aerosol-generating procedures are conducted in health care facilities.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has also released guidelines on this, saying that airborne bioaerosol transmission of COVID-19 has not been reported, except in particular circumstances like removing a patient from a ventilator or manual ventilation.
WHO advice as at 25 May 2020. Can wearing a mask protect you against coronavirus?


  • Physical distancing of 1 or 2 meters is the best protection.
  • New research dated 5 June 2020 has the WHO suggesting masks for everyone where social distancing is not possible.
  • Keep your hands off you face!
  • Wash or sterilise your hands often.
  • The Centre for Disease Control, (CDC), Public Health England (PHE) the World Health Organisation (WHO) do not suggest masks (and shields) or gloves as protection except for health professions and carer' or where social distancing is not possible.
  • Masks and shields will almost certainly prevent the infected spreading the virus.
  • Airborne transmission is unlikely but possible, in which case a mask will offer protection.
  • Shields are probably a better option than masks for protection, mainly because they are easier to wear and more likely to stay on.
  • The elderly need to take extra care, and should be completely insulated from the CO-19 patients.

  • A few viral particles cannot make you sick - the immune system would vanquish the intruders before they could infect you. However we do not know how much virus is needed for an infection to take root.
  • Children and young adults are less likely to become infected or show symptoms from the CO-19 virus and very seldom become badly sick from the virus.
  • Coronavirus is not as deadly as the media makes out, and your chances of dying, even if elderly are not so bad.
  • Sunlight can reduce the half life of CO-19 virus in aerosols from 60 minutes to 90 seconds, 1/40th!
  • The best place to be is outside in the open air.
  • No-one has any idea how long the virus will be affecting us.
  • The politicians know almost nothing about COVID-19 (and most things) but that will not stop them imposing their ideas on us.
  • Medical treatment of CO-19 is improving daily
  • The medical experts knowledge about COVID-19 is very limited, but most are learning fast.

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